It Shouldn’t Suck to be an Associate at a Law Firm, Part II

It Shouldn’t Suck to be an Associate at a Law Firm, Part II.


It Shouldn’t Suck to be an Associate at a Law Firm, Part II

Front page of the first issue of The Wall Stre...

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                                                                             Jerome Kowalski

                                                                             Kowalski & Associates

                                                                             January, 2012


Today’s Wall Street Journal  features a piece entitled “Law Firm Keep Squeezing Associates,” which will likely engender some great buzz on the blogosphere serving the law firm associate population and, in all likelihood, a yawn from law firm partners. This article comes on the heels of the second annual extravaganza, attendance for which is appropriately limited to but a few elites, entitled “The Annual Spring Bonuses Follies.” In all events, I would suggest that perhaps law firm partners and law firm leadership ought to take a closer at some of the issues raised in the Journal.

The Journal generally addressed the well worn issue of fewer openings at BigLaw and fewer job prospects for recently graduated law students. Anecdotal evidence suggests hiring is down about 30% (a fact we also have observed as generally true). The Journal also mentioned the longer and rockier road to partnership.

But the big takeaway in the piece, a fact well already known to many of us, is that since the crash four years ago, associate compensation has been stagnant, while the average associate has seen an increase in his or her workload by 2.3% since 2007, which the Journal calculates to be approximately 50 additional hours a year.  The new base “normal” appears to be approximately 1,650 hours a year, which the Journal Suggest amounts to about 37.5 hours a week; the Journal relies on the besieged NALP (hardly a bulwark for full and open disclosure where employment opportunities for lawyers are concerned) for arriving at this conclusion. Yale Law School last year did its own math and concluded that in order to bill 1,850 hours a year, an associate needed to spend at least 55 hours a week in the office, with three weeks of vacation and two weeks of vacation, sick days and holidays.  Yale concludes that in order for an associate to bill in the 2,000 a year range, he or she will need to work for about 12 hours a day and three weekend days a month. And that does not accurately include time spent at departmental meetings, firm functions, commuting, serving on administrative committees, recruiting, pro bono work, griping about being overworked or otherwise shooting the breeze with colleagues, friends or family. The reality, as we all know, is that an honest time reporter needs to work in the seventy hour a week range.

But let’s get back to that additional 50 hours a year squeezed out of associates since the onset of The Great Recession. Roughly translated, at an average of $300 an hour, associates have each contributed an extra $150,000 to their respective firm’s bottom line, without their firm’s incurring any incremental cost. A few firms, in an entirely short sighted fashion, in our opinion, have bestowed “Spring bonuses,” generally topped out at $37,000, while the bulk of BigLaw firms have simply enhanced partner profitability.

The fact is that Spring bonuses have a Marie Antoinette quality about them, a sort of noblesse oblige.  As Steve Harper noted, law firms should do better. They do not enhance associate morale nor do they halt associate attrition. The temporal cure to associate attrition has been an abysmal job market. But, for those who are planning on checking out, all that many law firms have done is have associates defer packing their bags until the bonus check clears. Spring bonuses not quite as satisfying as yesterday’s passing summer breezes, the recent autumnal foliage or Thanksgiving turkey. The breezes, foliage and turkey will likely return at their respective times and seasons; Spring bonuses, who knows?  With law firm revenues rising last year at a sluggish 3% and expenses at 9%, law firms, under pressure to keep PPP at the highest levels and the bulk of AmLaw 100 firms having gotten along just fine without them, this chimera will likely evaporate.

Well then, what’s the point?  There are two: We all know that associates are law firms’ most important profit centers. We also need to be reminded that keeping the young men and women toiling away productively at 60 hours a week, during their decade-long march to the brass ring, optimally requires them to have a high degree of job satisfaction, which has nothing to do with compensation or bonuses.  For nearly a century, every study performed by every industrial psychologist and labor economist has consistently reported that when people identify the reasons they leave their jobs, they rate compensation at the very bottom of their lists.  Overwork ranks at about the same. We know how to keep associates satisfied and productive, but we largely continue to ignore long learned basic human resources principles.

So, let’s take a look at the extra $150,000 per annum each associate is contributing to law firm revenue streams.  Why not engage your associates in a dialogue as to what should be done to improve their lives. Some might suggest an increase in base compensation to help them amortize student loans (and if you hear that don’t wince and worry what the neighbors might think), some might suggest rolling the work squeeze and laying off some of those collective additional 50 hours a year on a couple of new associates. After all, if you have 100 associates, you have effectively replaced two associates by having those remaining in the galleon just row harder. Exhausted oarsmen often collapse or jump ship. The golden chains of Spring bonuses won’t keep your associates tied to their oars. In fact, even The Great Recession and the burden of student debt do not necessarily keep them in the ship’s underbelly deprived of sunlight and overworked; one associate recently left his firm to open a bike shop, anther jumped ship to simply walk across the country.

The second point is quite simply, it still shouldn’t suck to be an associate at a law firm.

© Jerome Kowalski, January, 2012. All Rights reserved.

Jerry Kowalski is the founder of Kowalski & Associates, a consulting firm serving the legal profession exclusively. Jerry is a regular contributor to a variety of publications and is a frequent (always engaging and often humorous) speaker to a variety of forums. Jerry can be reached at or at 212 832 9070, Extension 310.

Difficult Times Sometimes Create Desperate People Who Do Desperate Things: Loss Prevention in Handling Client Escrow Funds

Difficult Times Sometimes Create Desperate People Who Do Desperate Things: Loss Prevention in Handling Client Escrow Funds.

Difficult Times Sometimes Create Desperate People Who Do Desperate Things: Loss Prevention in Handling Client Escrow Funds

Atla Escrow

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Jerome Kowalski

Kowalski & Associates

January, 2012

My copy of the Model Code of Professional Responsibility runs to some 500 pages, with sundry commentaries.  The Code plumbs virtually aspect of a practicing law and details that which can be done by lawyers and that which may not. One relatively brief section deals with lawyers handling of client funds held in the law firm’s escrow account, sometimes called “Escrow Accounts,” “Special Accounts,” “Trust Accounts” or “IOLTA (Interest on Lawyers Trust Accounts – but this one is a long and irrelevant boring story).   Cut to the quick, the Model Rules say just three things:  (1) Don’t co-mingle these funds with any other account; (2) deal with these funds exactly as instructed by the client and affected parties, as detailed in an appropriate escrow agreement and (3) if you even think about screwing around with these rules, you’re gonna fry.

In New York City, the Departmental Disciplinary Committee, the judicial authority having authority over lawyers’ compliance with applicable rules, investigates thousands of complaints filed against lawyers for all sorts of alleged violations of the applicable rules.  Yet, perhaps 80% of all suspensions and disbarments result from either defalcations or co-mingling of client funds. Here, justice is swift and certain. The Committee has long had a zero tolerance policy with regard to any impropriety concerning client funds, a view held by all governing bodies. Suspension or disbarment is the only result.

These facts are well known to all practitioners and may even strike some as a hackneyed topic. But recent reports of significant defalcations by a former counsel at a BigLaw firm of what may be as much as $20,000,000 and in another instance of the chair of a global law firm’s Asian gaming group having allegedly slipped out some $2,000,000 from client escrow funds to allegedly cover his own gambling losses suggest that this topic requires  careful review.  Indeed in year-end reviews by several of our law firm clients, prompted by the recent tawdry headlines, controls over client escrow funds were studied and found to be lacking. There have also been a recent spate of unsubstantiated rumors concerning of escrow account improprieties that are, simply put, more than troubling.

Some law firms dispense with the entire issue by simply eschewing, as a general rule, the maintenance of any escrow accounts. Where funds are required to be escrowed, these firms advise the retention of an independent trust company, bank, title company or where permitted, a duly licensed escrow agent.  However, often, local custom and usage requires law firms to maintain escrow accounts, which are fraught with peril, if not subject to stringent controls by the law firm. These controls should be described in writing and the firm’s policies regarding client funds should be in writing and part of its employee  handbook.  These rules should also be part of every new lawyer’s orientation session as he or she arrives at the law firm.

The required controls begin with the commencement of the client relationship. Every engagement letter must contain a disclosure regarding the law firm’s escrow policies. The letter should describe the firm’s policies concerning escrowed funds and, particularly, the requirement that all funds released from escrow require two partner signatures. Funds released by wire transfer require a separate email confirmation from a law firm partner to the escrowee.  The engagement letter should require the client to report any departure from these rules to the firm’s managing partner. The need for the double signature and reporting is best demonstrated by the fact that in one of the recently reported instances of trust fund defalcation, a counsel of a national law firm is reported to have taken a check drawn payable to his law firm, as escrow agent, walked across the street and simply opened an account in the firm’s name, making himself the sole signatory, without the bank requiring any certification from any partner at the law firm.

The law firm should not allow the deposit of any escrow funds without an accompanying escrow agreement. Thus, the firm should have a tightly drafted model form of escrow agreement, with appropriate exculpatory language, from which there should be no material departure, except upon written consent from department head, an office head or an executive committee member.  Each such agreement should also require the signature of such a member of management. When funds are deposited in to the escrow agreement, the requested deposit should only be permitted to be made to the accounting department of the escrow agreement, the underlying agreement, stipulation or other instrument giving rise to the creation of the escrow, as well as a memo (or standard form) from the responsible lawyer describing underlying transaction and the conditions precedent for the ultimate release of the escrow. This initiating memo should also include the client’s contact information. The memo form should be countersigned by a member of management. A member of the accounting department should examine the entire submission for regularity and completeness.  Any departure from the firm’s escrow policies must be reported in writing by the escrow clerk to the responsible lawyer, as well as to a member of management (optimally, if the firm has an in-house general counsel, the mater should be addressed to him or her), even if the departure seems to be only clerical or ministerial.

When funds are mature and are required to be released, the responsible lawyer should prepare a new memo (or standard form), describing the transaction should be prepared by the responsible lawyer and countersigned by two partners with management responsibilities, such as an office head, department chair or member of the executive committee. The submission should again include the underlying escrow agreement and governing instrument. Again, the escrow clerk should examine the entire submission for completeness and be obligated to report in writing any irregularities to each of the lawyers who have already put their fingerprints on the escrow arrangement as well as general counsel or a designated separate member of management. As I mentioned above, all checks drawn on the escrow account should require the signature of two partners, neither one of which is directly involved with the matter.  If a wire transfer is required, the clerk should send a confirmatory email to the client, using the email address originally provided at the time of the original submission.

Where law firms sometimes screw up is in connection with smaller branch offices, at which smaller support staffs and reduced lawyer headcounts often breeds shortcuts, for the sake of expediency. The fact is that far greater scrutiny is essential for smaller branch offices, which often takes on a degree of laxness and informality, primarily because of the greater sense of intimacy such smaller offices promote. In the age of the Internet, emails and paperless offices, there is no excuse for departing from the required controls. There simply must be zero tolerance for any departure from these controls. After all, bar associations and other governing bodies have none.

The law firm’s general counsel, chief financial officer and its chief risk manager should be responsible for regularly monitoring activities in the firm’s escrow accounts and its escrow clerical staff. As much as law firms are allergic to certified financial audits, the law firm’s outside accounting firm should be required to annually audit its escrow funds and provide written certification that all controls are in place and there is full compliance with the firm’s stated policies.

Finally, as too few lawyers realize, defalcations from escrow funds are not covered by a law firm’s malpractice policies. A separate fiduciary policy is required. Insurance carriers tend to be rather chintzy on these policies, often limiting coverage to $5,000,000. That may be far too low, if your firm’s escrow balances or individual escrow accounts exceed that amount.  You should explore increased coverage or excess coverage with your insurance adviser. And, finally, always be prepared for the public relations hailstorm that will assuredly ensue if you are indeed the victim of a nefarious lawyer with your firm.

© Jerome Kowalski, January, 2012. All Rights reserved.

Jerry Kowalski is the founder of Kowalski & Associates, a consulting firm serving the legal profession exclusively. Jerry is a regular contributor to a variety of publications and is a frequent (always engaging and often humorous) speaker to a variety of forums. Jerry can be reached at or at 212 832 9070, Extension 310.

I Know You Hate Keeping Time Sheets, but Even in the New Era You Must Still Do So and Here’s Why

I Know You Hate Keeping Time Sheets, but Even in the New Era You Must Still Do So and Here’s Why.

I Know You Hate Keeping Time Sheets, but Even in the New Era You Must Still Do So and Here’s Why

Taxi meter

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                                                                                      Jerome Kowalski

                                                                                      Kowalski & Associates

                                                                                      December, 2012


Some time ago, I wrote that even in the era of alternative fee arrangements and value billing, it remained essential for lawyers to record time.  I’ve been asked to revisit the issue and still come to the same conclusion, perhaps even more forcibly. There are myriad reasons that compel this conclusion.

First, despite the continued proliferation of AFA’s and value billing arrangements, the American Bar Association Model Rules of Professional Responsibility does not specifically permit for pure value billing.   Accordingly, well informed lawyers must be exceedingly careful in drafting their AFA agreements so as to meet the Model Rules.  But, even in a carefully drafted AFA, with both parties negotiating in good faith, some courts have continued to hold that fixed fees are unethical and unenforceable, requiring a plaintiff law firm suing a client to prove the value of its services based on the hours actually billed.

Sure, as others observed the old model of the client getting in your cab and all that you were concerned with was that the meter is running, but the taxi driver didn’t really care where you’re going no longer applies. In the old days, it was just about getting your fare. Today, you need to be far more concerned about where your client is going, but you need to keep that meter  ticking away for a variety of reasons, not all of which relates to collecting your fare at the end of the ride.

Just yesterday, the Delaware Chancery Court, in a derivative case in which plaintiffs’ counsel obtained a judgment of some $375,000,000,000, the court awarded plaintiffs’ counsel total fees of $285,000,000 (no, those are not typos).  The fee award came to a staggering $35,000 an hour.  Defense counsel argued for fees of less than $14,000,000.  Clearly, the battleground was neither the plaintiffs’ counsel’s customary and hourly fees nor the amount of hours billed to the case.  But, in order for these plaintiffs to celebrate a huge payday, they were required to submit a written application, which included details of its hourly billing, Similar rules exist in every bankruptcy court in the nation, which approves every fee application for every professional, save for those rare instances for which the court previously approved either a fixed or contingent fee.

In a case decided just last May, noted New York attorney Thomas Puccio successfully prosecuted a class action on behalf of New York City police entitled Scott v City of New York officers and thereafter filed a fee application for some $2,000,000, based on reconstructed time records. Puccio’s award was knocked down to $515,000,  The reason:  Puccio and his colleagues did not keep detailed contemporaneous time in derogation of Second Circuit rules which provide:

 “All applications for attorney’s fees, whether submitted by profit-making or non-profit lawyers, for any work done after the date of this opinion should normally be disallowed unless accompanied by contemporaneous time records indicating, for each attorney, the date, the hours expended, and the nature of the work done.”

As one commentator on this case observed:

“This issue arises because the lawyer for New York City police officers, who successfully sued New York City for overtime violations, sought over $2 million in attorneys’ fees. He submitted a 96-page attachment to the fee motion reflecting more than 2,000 hours of work. But these were not contemporaneous records. The lawyer acknowledged that “the entries were prepared instead ‘by my office working with outside paralegal assistance under my general supervision'” and that “the paralegals based the entries on ‘an extensive database of incoming emails maintain by my law firm in a computer folder.'” In other words, the time records in support of the fee application were prepared after the case ended, not contemporaneously. The time entries were also riddled with errors and mistakes.”

The simple point is not simply that keeping accurate, detailed and timely time records is not simply the gold standard, it remains the only standard.  Yes, virtually every lawyer abhors the notion of justifying his or her daily existence in twelve minute increments, and, yes, we all now know we sell valuable services not hours, time accurate, detailed and timely record keeping still remains with us.

But, there is more.

We have also recently learned essential the need to engage in project management, particularly in AFA engagements. Project management requires maintain GANT, PERT or similar charts, identifying critical paths and projections of the time necessary for each player to reach each critical path. Each player must also provide estimates as to when he or she will reach each critical path. No project manager can effectively carry out his or her responsibilities without tracking  in real time the time expended by each player. And at  the end of the day, in order to measure the profitability of the project and the efficiency of each player, an analysis of the time expended is a vital, indeed, essential tool. Lessons learned in the required post mortem of every completed project leads to more informed decisions on future pricing. Indeed, many RFP’s require law firms to describe their project management programs.  Some clients also require that the project management software be available to the client on an extranet.

Time management is also an essential tool for risk management.  In a recently well publicized case, a counsel at a large law firm was arrested for allegedly defalcating with many millions of dollars of client escrow funds.  While all of the facts are not in, it appears that the alleged perpetrator was handling work for some regular firm clients, not recording their time and privately charging the clients for his work.  These moonlighting activities ultimately apparently required the alleged perpetrator to deposit funds in an escrow account.  Since the matter was not recorded on the firm’s records, the young lawyer apparently went across the street and opened an escrow account in the firm’s name and he was the sole signatory.  The funds in this escrow account seem to have disappeared, with the law firm being the subject of claims for the funds as well as a failure to adequately supervise the alleged miscreant. It may well be that if this lawyer’s time charges were more carefully monitored, the entire problem may well have been avoided.

While you cannot always foil a determined and clever thief, requiring lawyers to account for all of their time, including non-billable time does serve as a deterrent.  Yes, banks with security cameras and guards stationed on the banking floor do get robbed.  But, some number of thefts are deterred.

Finally, I have long advocated that finders, minders and grinders all need to be equitably compensated.  In this more perfect world, lawyers who make contributions to the firm by entertaining clients, blogging, attending conferences, speaking at seminars, writing important articles, as well as those lawyers who toil away at pure client services or engage in the thankless task of managing the enterprise, are entitled to compensation for their efforts.  These efforts shouldn’t be simply recalled anecdotally, but recorded on a timely basis.

So you’re still incredibly annoyed about recording your time in twelve minutes increments, I am afraid  you’re just going to keep sucking it up. You’re probably equally annoyed about developing creative methods of pain and pleasure to assure timely compliance with time keeping requirements, but that annoyance is not quite going away either.

As they say, there’s an app for that:  A wide variety of timekeeping programs allow a timekeeper to toggle on and off at his or her computer time working on client matters.  And for the road warrior, there are IPad, IPhone and Android apps that you can also toggle on or off and the information is downloaded to your mainframe or your cloud.

The Law Firm of the Twenty-first Century isn’t your granddaddy’s law firm. But it still requires detailed, accurate and timely time keeping of all of your activities.

© Jerome Kowalski, December, 2011.  All Rights Reserved.

 Jerry Kowalski, who provides consulting services to law firms, is also a dynamic (and often humorous) speaker on topics of interest to the profession and can be reached at

A Cost Way Too High to Pay: The New York Times on the Price of Law School Tuition

A Cost Way Too High to Pay: The New York Times on the Price of Law School Tuition.

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